Synagogue Art & Architecture (United States)


Blake, Peter (ed.), 1954. An American Synagogue for Today and Tomorrow: A Guidebook to Synagogue Design and Construction, UAHC, New York.

Chiat, Marilyn. America’s Religious Architecture: Sacred Places for Every Community (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1997).

Elstein, Rochelle Berger, 1986. Synagogue Architecture in Michigan and the Midwest: Material Culture and the Dynamics of Jewish Accommodation, 1865-1945, Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University.  UMI Dissertation Services, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Gruber, Samuel D. American Synagogues: A Century of Architecture and Jewish Community (New York: Rizzoli, 2003).

Jick, Leon A., 1976. The Americanization of the Synagogue, 1820-1870, Hanover, NH

Kampf, Avram, 1966. Contemporary Synagogue Art: Developments in the United States, 1945-1965.  (New York: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1966)

Kaufman, David, 1998.  Shul with a Pool: The ‘Synagogue-Center’ in American Jewish History (Brandies Series in American Jewish History, Culture and Life). Brandeis Univ. Press.

Rosenfeld, Gavriel D., 2011. Building After Auschwitz: Jewish architecture and the Memory of the Holocaust. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2011).

Sarna, Jonathan D. “The Evolution of the American Synagogue,” in Robert M. Seltzer and Norman J. Cohen, eds., The Americanization of the Jews(New York: New York Univ. Press, 1995), 215-229.

Solomon, Susan G.  Louis I. Kahn’s Jewish Architecture: Mikveh Israel and the Midcentury American Synagogue (Waltham, MA: Brandeis Univ. Press, 2009).

Stolzman, Henry & Daniel, 2004. Synagogue Architecture in America: Faith, Spirit & Identity. Victoria, Australia: Images Publishing.

Wischnitzer, Rachel, 1955.  Synagogue Architecture in the United States: History and Interpretation.  Philadelphia.   

Exhibition Catalogs

Bernstein, Gerald, 1976. “Two Centuries of American Synagogue Architecture,” in   Two Hundred Years of American Synagogue Architecture, The Rose Art Museum, Brandeis University, Waltham, Mass., 9-17.

Elman, Kimberly and Giral, Angela, eds, 2001.  Percival Goodman: architect, planner, teacher, painter. Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Art Gallery. Columbia University, New York.

Meier, Richard, 1963. Recent American Synagogue Architecture. The Jewish Museum, New York.


Angel, Marc D., 1987.  “The American Experience of a Sephardic Synagogue,” in Wertheimer, Ed., The American Synagogue: A Sanctuary Transformed, (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge), 153-169.

Fattal, Laura Rachel Felleman, 1993-94. “American Sephardi Synagogue Architecture,” Jewish Art, 19-20, 22-43.

Fumaro, Bruno, 1939. “American Synagogue Design: 1729-1939,” Architectural Record 86 (Nov. 1939), 58-65.

Gertel, Elliot B. “Engaging, Artistic Invitations to Jewish Life: The Synagogues of Percival Goodman,” CCAR Journal: The Reform Jewish Quarterly, Fall 2016.

Goodman, Percival. “Modem Artists as Synagogue Builders. ” Commentary, vol. 7, no.1, (January, 1949).

Gordon, Mark, 1996. “Rediscovering Jewish Infrastructure: Update on United States Nineteenth Century Synagogues,” in American Jewish History, 84:1 (March), 11-27.

Greenberg, Evelyn, 1993-94. “The Tabernacle in the Wilderness: The Mishkan Theme in Percival Goodman’s Modern American Synagogues,” Jewish Art, 19-20, 44-55.

Gruber, Samuel D. “Sidney Eisenshtat, 90, Leading Synagogue Architect,” Jewish Daily Forward (1 April 2005).

Gruber, Samuel D., 2010. “Synagogues in the Garden,” The Jewish Daily Forward (June 16, 2010). online at

Issacs, A.S., 1908. “Recent American Synagogue Architecture,” American Architect and Building News 94 (2 Sept 1908), 73-76.

Kline, Alexander. “Synagogue Architecture in America.” The Reconstructionist, vol. 18, no.10, (June, 1952), pp. 21-28.

Krinsky, Carol Herselle, 1992. “Judaism by Design,” Hadassah Magazine (November 1992), 46-49.

Schack, William, 1955. “Synagogue Art Today: I, Something of a Renaissance,” Commentary, 20 (1955), 548-553.

Sussman, Lance J.  “The Suburbanization of American Judaism as Reflected in Synagogue Building and Architecture, 1945-1975.  American Jewish History, Vol. 75. (Sept. 1985), 31-47.


Michal Landau Architects Website at

For more the 40 years American architect Michael Landau has been designing synagogues. This website offers descriptions, plans and photos of many of his projects – built and unbuilt.